What Are the Types, Causes, and Best Treatment for Depression?

depression causes and treatment1

In this article we will discuss the depression causes and treatment for people who feel depressed, and for them, it seems that nothing could help them in their life.

They think life is a burden for them. As a result, various thoughts come to mind for the destruction of their life. But this is not the solution.

Most people get recover from the phase of Depression, while some people look back at that phase and make it a lesson for their user experience, which made them make changes in their life and their lifestyle too.

This article will help you to know about everything about Depression in detail and what possible treatment can be done to get rid of Depression.

This will not only help you, but you can also tell your friends and family who are facing Depression.

What is Depression?

Depression can be said when the person feels very sad and low, takes no interest in any kind of daily activities and work.

This often happens with all of us. let us see the meaning of Depression and various Depression causes and treatment.

But if it persists for a long time and a person doesn’t want to get socialize, do not take an interest in any activities, sit alone, and this affects life substantially than it is said as depression. 

In depressive patients, they feel life is miserable (unhappy). Depression in the mildest form, the person feels low spirit.

As in this stage of Depression, the person does his/her daily activities but these activities are now difficult for him. It seems harder to finish and seems less worthwhile. 

Depression in the severe form, when it is diagnosed clinically as Depression, it can be life-threatening in fewer patients.

These patients think that there is no motive to live due to which suicidal tendency occurs; few patients even give up on life.

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Types of Depression

Depressions are of many types. This may be due to any event that occurred, or it may be due to any chemical changes that occurred in the brain.

Let us see different types of depression to find out depression causes and treatment.

Major Depression or Major Depressive Disorder

This form of Depression is seen in most of the people and is very commonly found. When you feel depressed for a day or more, even for a week.

Some of the Symptoms are,

  • Loss of interest in daily activities
  • Weight loss or weight gain
  • Sleepless nights or difficultly in sleep during night feels drowsy during the daytime
  • Feels restlessness and agitated mentally and physically
  • Sluggish activities physically and mentally
  • Feels tired and boring without doing any work
  • Cannot concentrate and cannot make any decisions
  • Suicidal thoughts

Your doctor can diagnose with this Depression if he found five or even more of the above symptoms in you.

Persistent Depressive Disorder

Depression that lasts for two years or more than it is diagnosed as a persistent depressive disorder.

In this Depression, two conditions are described, which are previously called dysthymia (low-grade persistent Depression) and chronic major Depression.

The Symptoms Found in this Depression are,

  • Change in the appetite like not eating or overeating
  • Feeling fatigued and lack of energy (weakness)
  • Change in sleeping habits like sleep too much or very little
  • Lack of self-confidence
  • Hopeless feeling
  • Difficulty in concentration and making any decisions

Bipolar Disorder

This type of Depression is also called as manic DepressionIn this type of Depression, the patient has mood episodes. Sometimes the patient is very high and energetic, and other times the patient feels very low and depressive.

This can be said as the up and down of the mood. During a depressed mood, the patient will show the symptoms of major Depression. The doctor prescribes them medication for controlling for their mood swings.

The most prescribed medicines for these up downswings is lithium, which is a mood stabilizer. Few doctors even prescribe anti-convulsive medications also.

Traditional anti-depressants are not taken as a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder patients as this may produce harmful effects on the body.

It also increases the risk of the high phase of the illness that is up and down of the moods with very frequent episodes. Psychotherapy works well in these patients.

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depression causes and treatment

Seasonal Affecting Disorders

This is a period of major Depression, which is found mostly in winter seasons when the days are shorter and nights are longer. Due to longer nights, these patient gets less sunlight which produces Depression in them.

This Depression goes away when days become longer usually in summer and springs. Anti-depressant medicines and light therapy is good in these patients.

Psychotic Depression

In this type of Depression, patient are mostly seen with the symptoms of major Depression along with the psychotic symptoms which can be seen as an,

Hallucinations: Seeing or hearing those things are not present in front of the people and others.

Delusions: False belief 

Paranoia: wrongly feeling that someone is there who is going to harm him/her.

It can be treated with anti-depressant medicine along with anti-psychotic medicines.

Postpartum Depression

This Depression occurs in the women after delivery when they saw they have a blue baby soon after the delivery. This Depression goes away after two days or more.

But this Depression is a very much more serious problem, and this can occur at any time between two weeks or two years after the birth of the baby. Anti-depressant medicines are given in these patients who are not related to the childbirth.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

This is seen in the women’s before the appearance of the menstruation. Women have symptoms of Depression, and other symptoms also. These symptoms can be seen as,

  • Feeling depressed
  • Mood swings
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Tired feeling
  • Change in sleep
  • Change in appetite and habits
  • Difficulty in concentration
  • The feeling of being overwhelmed

Situational Depression

This Depression present according to the situation faced by the person like a stressful event, a death, divorce of parents, or losing any job.

Due to all this, the person has a depressed mood. Doctors call this situation a “stress response syndrome.” Psychotherapy helps a person to overcome all these situations.

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A Typical Depression

This type of Depression is different from persistent sadness. There are some specifier which describe this atypical Depression. Symptoms of atypical depression are,

  • Increased appetite
  • Increased sleep than normal
  • Feeling of heaviness in both extremities
  • Criticism is unbearable

Anti-depressant medicines are mostly advised to these patients.

Symptoms of Depression

The following are the symptoms of depression. To diagnose for depression five or more symptoms should be present in the patient.

Let us see some of the symptoms of depression which help to find depression causes and different treatment are applicable to the patient.

Feelings of the patientThoughts of the patientBehavior of the patientPhysical symptoms
Low spirited for much of the time or for every dayHaving difficulty remembering thingsNot doing activities which usually enjoyHave difficulty sleeping
Restless and agitatedFind it hard to concentrate or make decisionsAvoiding social events which usually enjoySleeping much more than usual
Get tearful easilyBlame themselves a lot and feel guilty about thingsHave cut them self off from others and can’t ask for helpFeel tired and have no energy
Feel numb, empty and full of despairHave no self-confidence or self-esteemSelf-harmingHave lost appetite, and started losing weight
Feel isolated and unable to relate to other peopleHaving a lot of negative thoughtsFind it difficult to speakEating a lot more than usual and putting on weight
Unusually irritable or impatientFuture seems bleak Have physical aches and pains with no obvious physical cause
Find no pleasure in life or things which usually enjoyHave been thinking about suicide Moving very slowly
Feel helpless  Started using more tobacco, alcohol or other drugs than usual
Have lost interest in sex   
Experiencing a sense of unreality   

From the above table, you can understand and conclude that Depression presents itself in different and many ways.

Even you may not be able to realize what is going on, few will show the physical symptoms, while many of the patients show mental or emotional symptoms.

Not only these symptoms, but there can also be a few patients who may give you symptoms of other diseases linked with Depression.

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Patients who are in Depression often have anxiety as well. If these two present in the patient at the same time, then the condition of the patient gets worsens.

Anxiety and depression are different things but in some cases, symptoms and causes of anxiety are similar to depression causes and it helps to find the treatment for depression.

  • Repetitive thoughts
  • Unable to concentrate on any work and make decisions
  • The mind seems busy always
  • Unable to sleep and relax
depression causes and treatment

Physical Symptoms

  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Sweating
  • Dizziness 

Psychotic Experiences

If the person is severely depressed, then he might get some unusual experiences and thoughts which other person is not sharing with him. This is in the form of delusions, hallucinations, and illusions. The person might have the belief that another person is here to kill him.

Suicidal Thoughts

As the depression stage further progresses, the personal life is not worth it. There is no reason for living and start thinking of killing themselves. These kinds of patients are very difficult to make them understand that suicide is not the solution to all the problems.

Depression Causes and Treatment

Depression Causes

Today in our life, many up and down are present. Few people have made it a part of their life while few people go into a depressed state. let us learn about the different depression causes and treatments.

Life Events

If any unpleasant and unwelcome life events present in any person’s life and if it occurred the very first time, then the person becomes depressed. These situations are like being assaulted, traumatic events, being sacked, divorced, physically, or sexually assaulted.


There are many depression causes but this one is very important. Depression can also be triggered by some kind of loss which the person was previously loved a lot.

It can be any death of the family relative or of someone which was very close, loss of the job, changing of the house, or changing from one phase of life to another one like retirement, children leaving home or bad news that you can’t have your family anymore.


Few people even call Depression “frozen anger”, when you have suppressed your anger. This can occur when someone of your family relative has left the house from which you are very angry, but you are helpless, you cannot do anything.

You are not able to give your expressions. This will produce internalized anger, which will be reflected in the form of suppressed anger.

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Childhood Experience

Any type of traumatic event or any physical or mental abuse present at childhood, which results in delayed milestones and learning. This reflects depression. As an adult, these patients have difficulty to cope up with the situations.

Physical Conditions

Following are the physical conditions that most people neglect, but they result in Depression. If you are not happy or satisfied with your physical condition you get depressed and this is one of the depression causes.

  • Conditions which affects the brain and nervous system
  • Hormonal problems, especially of the thyroid and parathyroid problems
  • Symptoms which are related to the menstrual cycle or the menopause
  • Low blood sugar
  • Sleep problems.

Side Effects of Medications

Those patients who take a lot of medicines for their diseases, these patients go to the depression stage. For example- depression is seen in patients who have a heart attack in their past and still taking medicines (beta-blockers) to prevent the attack in the future.

Taking this medicine patient may feel depressed. If this occurs that the patient should consult the doctor immediately to change their medicines. Depression causes include the side effect of medications and which are very harmful to us.

Poor Diet

Poor dietary intake with a lack of exercise can produce Depression in many of the people.

Drugs and Alcohol

Those who take drugs and drink alcohol regularly suffer from the Depression. Alcohol is considered a depressant. 


There is no specific gene is present, which can produce genetics. If Depression is running in the family to some, extend than there are more chances of Depression in others.

Chemical Changes in the Brain

If there is any chemical imbalance present in the brain and you are taking medicines for it, Then it is said that these medicines produce side effects, which can be seen in the form of Depression.

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Treatment of Depression

The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines has recommends following for the treatment of Depression. If we understand depression causes it helps to find the treatment for depression.

Active Monitoring

Active monitoring is for mild Depression and means keeping an eye on the patient, and thus waiting to see if the patient’s Depression goes away without treatment or not, which mild Depression often does.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)

CBT can help people with many problems, where thoughts and beliefs are crucial. This reinforces the need to identify, challenge and change perceptions of the situation.

According to the CBT, people’s thinking is like wearing glasses that make us see the world in a certain way. CBT helps us better understand how these patterns of thinking shape our reality and define our behavior.

If people learn negative thinking, they can start thinking in this way automatically. CBT challenges these automatic thoughts and compares them with reality.

If a person can change his mindset, disaster is reduced, and he can act in a way that is more likely to benefit both himself and others.

Computerized CBT

Computerized Cognitive Behaviour therapy is for mild depressive patients. This includes a series of sessions with a therapist for more severely depressed patients.

Computerized CBT is a group of methods focused on changing useless thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.

It has proven to be useful in the treatment of many mental illnesses, including less severe depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders and borderline personality disorder.

It is also combined with medications in case of more serious conditions, such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder and psychotic disorders.

CBT’s goal is to neutralize our cognitive distortions, inaccurate thoughts that reinforce stereotypes or negative emotions.

Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is based on the principles of cognitive therapy, using techniques such as meditation and breathing exercises to teach people to clearly pay attention to their thoughts and feelings, without subjecting them to judgment.

This provides clarity of thought and can provide the tools you need to get rid of negative thoughts more easily, rather than letting them nurture your depression.

It has been shown to be effective in patients with the major depressive disorder who have survived at least three episodes of depression. Awareness-based relapse prevention can also be useful in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders and addictions.

MBCT has also been shown to improve symptoms of depression in some people with physical conditions, such as vascular disease and traumatic brain injuries.

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Behavioural Activation

Behavioral activation is the part of cognitive-behavioral therapy that aims to help people to perform activities more enjoyably and improve problem-solving skills.

The goal of Behavioural activation (BA) is to reverse the cycle of depression, increasing the involvement in valuable activities, which increases our chances of having fun and a feeling of winning life.

Behavioural activation (BA) has been used for decades as an independent treatment for depression.

Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)

Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a depression treatment. IPT is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on you and your relationship with others.

This is based on the idea that personal relationships are at the heart of psychological problems.

Relationships and events are not always reasons for Depression. However, depression affects relationships and can create problems with interpersonal relationships.

The goals of IPT are to help you to communicate better with others and solve problems that increase your depression.

Immediate treatment goals are to quickly reduce symptoms and promote social change. The long-term goal is to allow people with depression to make the necessary changes themselves.

When they can do this, they are better at managing and reducing the symptoms of depression.


Counseling offers practical help to those who suffer from depression. Counseling techniques can help you learn the skills necessary to overcome depression, as well as discover depression causes and applicable treatment on it.

These techniques allow victims to talk openly and in a safe environment about their feelings to help them find a way out.

Counselors may have an influence on their patients’ motivation to open and develop social skills so that they can engage them in friendships and achieve respect and happiness, etc.

These techniques can teach you how to effectively deal with feelings of depression. Counseling methods provide a safe and supportive environment using a number of strategies and approaches.


Regular exercise is important for good physical and mental health. Exercise can help stimulate parts of your brain. It also affects the production of chemicals that are beneficial to the brain.

Exercise also helps you distract yourself from your worries and increase your confidence. Regular exercise affects the level of serotonin in the brain. Increased serotonin levels increase the overall mood and wellbeing.

It can also help improve your mood and sleep cycles, which often results in depression. Exercise focuses on your body movements, and this will help you divert attention from negative thoughts.

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We have seen different depression causes and treatment and the next mode of treatment for depression is medications, which include anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medicines, which are given according to the situations of the patients.

Medication for severe depressive patients, but not for mild to moderate depressive patients unless other treatment does not help. This should be combined with CBT or psychotherapy.

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